Streptomycetes are considered to be the most significant source of antibiotics that are employed for medical, agrarian and veterinary aims. They appeared about 450 million years ago being branched filamentous organisms suitable for the usage of plant remains. They have a major interest to people’s well-being and are a part of a sort of bacteria that are also recognized as actinomycetes (Nonoh, Lwande, Herrmann, Presnail, and Masiga). Having a meaning of ‘ray fungi’, this name was given due to the first known example grew as fungus-like branching fibers, however, actinomycetes are now known to contain different forms. Streptomycetes are characterized as being Gram-positive and have genomes with high-level GC content. This type of bacteria is mostly can be found in soil and decomposed vegetation (Ceylan, Okmen, and Ugur). Most streptomycetes originate spores, and also they are recognized for their distinctive “earthy” smell that comes out of production of a volatile metabolite, geosmin. Streptomycetes are described by a multiplex secondary metabolism. They make a great deal of functional and natural antibiotics, including chloramphenicol and neomycin.
During its life cycle, Streptomyces undertakes two evidently different incidents of cell division. At the beginning, the cell division system makes irregularly spaced septa (“crosswalls”) in the vegetative hyphae that mark off the multinucleoid hyphal cells (Ceylan, Okmen, and Ugur). During the reproductive period, approximately a hundred septa are at the same time created in the sporogenic aerial hyphae, that suddenly results into the production of mononucleoid spores. In the contrary to septation in vegetative hyphae, developmental cell division leads to physical division of the spores. In exchange for the canonical cell section control proteins, most of which were determined throughout studies on E. coli and B. subtilis, some distinct protein families have been determined that matter in the control of cell section in streptomycetes (Chater).
One of the biggest groups of Streptomyce is considered to be Streptomyces coelicolor. It appears to have a big group of enzymes and may metabolize numerous different nutrients. This microbe is quite vulnerable and it cannot survive serious alterations in water, temperature and food sources. Strains of Streptomyce coelicolor make various antibiotics, such as methylenomycin, undecylprodigiosin, actinorhodin, and perimycin (Chater).
The life cycle of Streptomyces takes the several steps: germination, vegetative growth, aerial growth and sporulation. This first stage always starts with the germination of a unique spore. This spore creates one or numerous multinucleoid fibers. This will extend and divide on the surface into the culture medium to create a vegetative mycelium. The complex group of fibers will keep on permeating the medium, using the accessible organic molecules with the use of ectocytic hydrolytic enzymes (Nonoh, Lwande, Herrmann, Presnail, and Masiga). When the things are about colonizing solid substrates in the soil, the mobility of the Streptomyces vegetative fibers is an absolute advantage to other less mobile microorganisms. According to relevant signals that involve the exhaustion of nutrient production in the natural habitat, the substrate mycelium tends to damage the surface barrier and, as a result, aerial hyphae are created. Aerial growth occurs simultaneously the beginning os secondary metabolism in plants that grow on solid medium (Nonoh, Lwande, Herrmann, Presnail, and Masiga). The prolongation of the aerial growth is maintained by means of the vegetative mycelium usage. The hyphae in succession will undertake simultaneous septation to create unigenomic spore sections, which will scatter and, consequently, begin a new cycle.