Table of Contents
The components of the psychoanalytic approaches are aimed to make predictions, explain, and understand the subject of a given matter. Freud’s controversial psychoanalysis became a stem for further studying and is the most significant achievement of science. However, each approach investigates some particular part of psychoanalysis. The psychoanalytic theory is the most-debated approach. The subject of this approach becomes evident while observing the psychoanalytic theories of Freud, Jung, and Adler. Initially, the psychoanalytic personality theory was discovered by Sigmund Freud. Therefore, he is considered to be the most notable among other scientists in such approaches.
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality
Sigmund Freud attracted attention and aroused considerable interest to self-consciousness. Moreover, this scientist invented the term – Psychoanalysis. It was an innovative treatment method that allowed patient to talk freely about associations, memories, dreams, and fantasies.
Freud’s theory of personality implemented the structure of human’s mind. According to Freud’s theory, the personality consists of the Id, the Ego, and the Superego. As a matter of fact, Sigmund Freud insisted that the conflicts and structures in person’s mind determine personality. Moreover, he determined that the ego operates on the reality principles; the superego operates on the morality principles; the id operates on the pleasure principles.
The psychoanalytical theory of Freud determined three levels of awareness. They are the conscious, the preconscious, and the unconscious. Freud distinguished the id component to be completely at the unconscious level and to act under the pleasure principles. The sample of these statements can be immediate gratification, avoiding compromise, etc. The id component can generate all of the personality’s energy.
Following Freud’s theory, it is seen that superego is an idealistic and moralistic part of personality. It resides in the preconscious level and operates the ideal principles. It starts forming at age 4-5. It is initially affected by environment, society, and family. This component deals with morality and conventions. Therefore, superegois known as ‘your conscience’ (Psychological Musings, 2011).
Sigmund Freud has determined ego to reside in all levels of awareness. Ego is responsible for reality principles. The main duty of ego is to negotiate between superego and the id satisfying both realistically.
Adler’s and Jung’s Theories
Sigmund Freud was founder and investigator of Psychoanalysis. Despite the fact that it was a great input in psychology there were supporters as well as opponents of this approach. Alfred Adler never fully supported Freud’s theory. He disagreed with Freud’s position related to Fred’s radical musings about infantile sexual trauma. Admittedly, Adler developed his approach called Individual Psychology. The main principle of this approach was the individuality of the personality. The main reason the Individual Psychology theory appeared was Adler’s striking contrast between his thinking and the majority of his contemporaries. Fundamentally, he believed that human’s personality is self-determined. The main feature that separates Adler’s approach from Freud’s theory was Adler’s critical position to observe a human being as a whole. He insisted that the human being is a conglomeration of dynamic parts, drives and mechanisms.
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As a matter of fact, Alfred Adler believed that the personality in its actions is motivated by a desire to be superior and to get success. His individual Psychology determined personality as a unique being unlike anybody else.
Carl Jung was Sigmund Freud’s protégé. However, when Jung started to develop his approaches based on Freud’s views, their friendship dissolved. The cooperation with Freud helped Jung later to develop the fascination of the unconscious mind. Carl Jung based his theory on the further understanding of the person’s mind through myths, dreams, philosophy, and art. Admittedly, Jung separated from Freudian theory based on sex as the only source of behavior motivation.
Jung’s approach was established on his believe that the human personality consists of the conscious mind (the ego), the personal and the collective unconscious. In his theory, Carl Jung insisted that individuation process is dominant for person to fully develop as a human being. Despite Jungian ttheory was often discussed and critiqued, Jung’s contribution is notable for psychology. His concept of extraversion and introversion has greatly influenced psychotherapy.
Components of the Psychoanalytic Approach to Personality
Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung and Alfred Adler were prominent contributors and founders in the components of the psychological approach to personality. Freud, Jung and Adler had formulated theories and approaches that are worth comparing and contrasting. Their theories are separate, but they have many cognate components. Although the theories have some differences all these scientists spent all their lives in search for better understanding the individual psychological frailties and the ways to improve them.
However, disagreement and critical thinking coexist among the theories and psychological approaches founded by Jung, Freud and Adler. The criticism and discussions lead to explanation of the personality in order to improve the understanding and the quality of life.
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Admittedly, these three scientists determine the manner of psychological function in human beings in a different way. Observing the components of psychoanalytic theories presented by Jung, Adler and Freud, it is seen that each of scientists strives to be unique.
However, there are opinions that all the theories presented by Freud, Jung, and Adler, have one common derivative approach. In order to discover the truth, many scientists are observing components of the psychoanalytic approach to personality. Therefore, the majority of disagreement publications determine either minor similarities or complete differences among the three published theories.
There are many characteristics related to these theories. Some of them are worth support, some of them are not. The presence of ‘anima’ or ‘animus’ in a human body is an unconditional characteristic of Freud’s theory. However, the aspect that explains this theory is doubtful and mainly does not find support: Freud explained the ‘animus’ as archetype that demonstrates the masculine side of female. Moreover, he insisted that the ‘anima’ is an expression of the feminine side of male. It is hard to agree that these archetypes help opposite sexes react with each other.