Without any doubt, in the 21st century, humans have faced a big problem, commonly known as terrorism. Nowadays, different terroristic organizations cast doubt on the existence of the future generation not only in the USA, but also in the world. Unfortunately, the Heritage Foundation’s Center for Data Analysis indicates that terrorism against the USA is at the peak. According to the statistics, there were 38345 terrorist attacks around the world, 2981 of which were performed against the United States of America. Moreover, scientists determine three vulnerable targets of terrorism against the USA such as businesses (31.5%), diplomatic offices (26.7 %), and military institutions (12.8 %) (Muhlhausen & Baker, 2011). The damnable events of 11 September 2001 initiated the beginning of a new era of the USA in which the American military and political forces should establish a fully-fledged securing policy in order to provide safety in domestic and international level. In this case, the Global War on Terror is a key point of this new policy. However, current stark reality indicates the faults of American government.
Historically, in 1990, several changes were seen that considerably deteriorated the terroristic situation. At that time, Osama bin Laden was on President Clinton’s law enforcement radar screens; American antiterrorism legislation expanded its borders. For instance, the establishment of the Project for a New American Century affected the expansion of American influence, including forcible regime change in Iraq.
Declaring a war on terrorism is estimated as profound opportunity for the United States government to achieve international support. Indisputably, the Bush administration used various manipulative tools in order to gain support from other countries against not only Al Qaeda, but also any terroristic organization which may attempt to destroy the American power and influence in the world. The Declaration of War was a declaration of retribution and revenge against American rivals. Nine days after the attacks, President Bush (2001) announced, “Either you’re with us, or you’re with the terrorists.”
Undoubtedly, the Global War on Terror (GWOT) was organized as a tool that would be helpful in the future achievements of specific political goals of the American government. The Global War on Terror began after the September 11, 2001, attacks when President Bush proclaimed to take all necessary measures in order to reduce the global terrorism. However, it is doubtful whether terrorism or another deliberate attack of the American government is to expand its influence into the world. Indisputably, after the events on September 11, 2001, humans around the world blamed Al Qaeda for merciless killing since about 3000 people were killed. However, nobody accused the USA of killing 3500 innocent civilian lives during the attack against the Taliban and Osama bin Laden’s Al Qaeda terrorist organizations. Moreover, the unjust accusation of violent measures of Muslims by the American government considerably deteriorated the relationships amidst Christianity and Islam. Around the world humans killed those who wore long beard (even if these people did not belong to Muslims) (Dobrot, 2007). Moreover, the Bush administration developed a new strategy of fighting against terrorism, known as a Watch List or No Fly List. The application of this policy is evident in the case of Walter Murphy, law scholar and professor of politics at Princeton University, who was accused of terroristic inclinations. However, the exact truth is that this scholar blamed the Bush administration for violation of norms and regulations of the U.S. Constitution. This example indicates the correlation between the power of the Bush administration and policies, which were adopted by J. Stalin and A. Hitler, the most terrible dictators of the world history, who annihilated those who were against them. Furthermore, after the terrible event of 9/11, the U.S. administration identified Pakistan as the “Epicenter of Global Terror” or “Mecca of Terrorism.” One of the American faults of the establishment of the Global War on terror was the adoption of policy known as Lex Talionis (an eye for an eye). American invasion influenced the killing of innocent people from the Democratic Republic of Congo, Iraq, Kosovo, and East Timor. Additionally, the American bombing of Afghanistan led to a great number of deaths.
It is generally true that the disagreement between Al Qaeda and the U.S. Government was influenced by the desire to establish total control of the world and to extend its influence. The rise of Muslim power can be explained by the expansion of the Islamic religion. According to statistics, more than 1.3 billion people follow Islam. Moreover, the Islamic world is famous for its powerful military forces and rich natural resources. In this case, the U.S. government planned to defeat the Islamic world long before the terrible attack of the September 11, 2001. With regard to the Middle East, the United States strategic goals consisted of three fundamental policies such as maintenance of regional stability, security of the regional nuclear power, and total control of Persian Gulf oil.
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Historically, disorder amidst the USA and the Middle East can be seen after the adoption a fatwa (an Islamic religious doctrine) issued by the leader of Al Qaeda Osama bin Laden. This doctrine manifested a struggle against unfaithful people (everybody who do not follow Islam). In 1998, a second fatwa led to deployment of conflict against the American civilian and military people (Dobrot, 2007). In August 1988, Al Qaeda performed two attacks on American embassies in Kenya and Tanzania. The consequences of these attacks were terrible since over 220 people were dead. The Clinton administration took necessary measures by adopting the U.S. Patriot Act, Anti-Terrorism Act, and Effective Death Penalty Act. The Bush administration was stricter to Muslims that is clearly amplified by the information provided above. However, violence against violence does not solve the problem. The main issue in this situation is to determine the enemy; however, not to kill everybody who professes Islam.
In the framework of identifying appropriateness of the Global War on Terror, it is highhly recommended to define domestic and international terrorism. According to definition, terrorism is the application of force or violent measures against humans and their property that is characterized by the violation of the Criminal Code. The Federal Bureau of Investigation defines two types of terrorism such as domestic and international. Domestic Terrorism is the unlawful application of violation against innocent people without foreign direction. In the USA, domestic terrorism is divided into three classes such as right-wing group, left-wing group, and the radical extremists group. Nationally, the Aryan Nations, National Alliance, and the World Church of the Creator represent right-wing group. These groups want to proclaim their own ideology under cover of religion. For instance, on April 19, 1995, bombing of Oklahoma City killed 168 people. Left-wing group is struggling against dehumanization of capitalistic and imperialistic values. For example, during 1970s – 1980s, a group of Puerto Rican National Liberation bombed American mainland close to New York City in order to get independence of Puerto Rico. Finally, the radical extremist groups are fighting against nuclear weapons, destruction of animals and plants, and other movements. The most notable example of these organizations is the Animal Liberation Front that is struggling for animals’ rights by violent means. On the contrary, international terrorism is characterized by terroristic activities performed against the USA by terroristic groups outside the United States of America. International terrorism against the USA is divided into three groups such as the radical jihad terroristic movements, formal terroristic organizations, and state sponsors of international terrorism. First, the radical jihad terroristic movements are represented by an absolute power of Al Qaeda. The most terrible influence of this organization was seen on the September 11, 2001. Secondly, formal terroristic organizations are independent terroristic organizations that have their own strategies and facilities. The Egyptian El-Gama Al-Islamiyya, Palestinian Hamas, and Lebanese Hizballah terroristic formed organizations represent a constant threat to the USA. Finally, state sponsors terroristic groups include Iraq, Libya, Sudan, and Iran (Watson, 2002).
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All in all, the modern world should be characterized by the dominance of humanistic approaches, new technologies, and peaceful international collaboration. However, the USA, one of the strongest global political powers, does not demonstrate the establishment of these fully-fledged doctrines. Nowadays, the American citizens are under constant danger of massive destruction since political strength and economic greatness of this country has led to the increase of domestic and international terroristic groups. The latter’s main aim is to demolish their enemies. In this case, the American government should realize the disadvantages of the Global War on Terror in order to provide its citizens with security. Moreover, by reducing domestic terrorism, the U.S. government can have a chance to fight against international terrorism; however, in this case, humanistic approaches should be applied since violence and war will never bring peace.